State mandates come in many shapes and sizes. Typically, they are thought of as statutory or regulatory provisions that require a local government to deliver a service without providing the funding to go along with it. These types of mandates are perhaps the easiest to identify and quantify. But it is important to note that mandates can take other forms as well. Many mandates do not necessarily require local governments to provide a particular service, but they place restrictions or impose requirements on the way municipalities operate or how a particular service is delivered. Frequently, these mandates limit flexibility, forcing local leaders to be less efficient and cost-effective than they otherwise would. Finally, state mandates can limit a municipality's ability to raise revenue by restricting the fines, fees and taxes that may be levied at the local level.

Environment and Health

Prohibition Against Reasonable Return on Sewer Rents
Inability to Establish Stormwater Utility Districts


The Wicks Law
Competitive Bidding Reform
Requiring Municipalities to Use Preferred Source Vendors

Government Operations and Community Development

Hold Limited Liability Property Owners Accountable for Their Neglected Properties
Scaffold Law
Local Government Liability
Interest Rates on Judgments Against Municipalities
Limitations on Municipal Deposit Options
Building Code Enforcement
Taking Title to Abandoned Properties
Funding for School Crossing Guards
Local Records Management
Lack of Reimbursement of Municipal Legal Costs
Publication Requirements for Official Notices

Fees, Fines, and Other Local Revenues

Increase Reimbursement Rate for Arterial Maintenance
Limitation on Charges for FOIL Requests
Inability to Impose Fees for Police Services
Lack of Reimbursement for Emergency Medical Services
Disparity in Charges for Vital Records
Enforcement of Unpaid Building Code Fines
Inability to Impose Fees for Police and Firefighter Investigations
Inability to Impose Fees for Volunteer Emergency Rescue and Ambulance Services

Local Taxation

Local Taxation for Services Not Provided to Sub-Units of Local Government
Restriction on Assessments for Condominiums and Cooperatives
Exclusion of Cellular Services from the Utility Gross Receipts Tax
Inability to Recoup Costs for Municipal Services Provided to Tax-Exempt Properties
Absence of PILOTs on State-Owned Land and Community Residences
Taxation of Municipal Property Used for Public Purposes
Tax Free Purchases on Indian Reservations

Public Safety

Municipal Disability Payments Under General Municipal Law § 207-a and § 207-c
Requirement for Office of Police Chief

Employee Relations

Exclusion of Smaller Municipalities from Health Insurance Trusts that are Experienced-Rated
Public Sector Pension Costs
Compulsory Arbitration
Prevailing Wage
The Triborough Amendment
Legislative Changes to the Taylor Law that Undermine the Collective Negotiation Process
Extension of the Mandatory Retirement Age for Police and Firefighters
Allowing Retirement Plan Changes Once a Disability Occurs
Limitations on Admission to Promotional Exams
Paid Leave for Cancer Screenings
Exclusion of Municipalities From Disability Retirement Proceedings